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This is certainly true of K2 229b, a rocky planet that was recently discovered by an international team of astronomers. Located 339 light years away, this hot, metallic planet is an exercise in extremes. Not only is it 20% larger than Earth, it canada goose outlet in usa is 2.6 times Earth mass and has a composition similar to canada goose outlet jackets Mercury. canada goose outlet parka Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/Carnegie Institution of Washington/USGS/Arizona State University
Canada Goose online Using data from the Kepler space telescopes K2 mission, the team was able to identify K2 229b, a Super Earth that orbits a medium sized K dwarf (orange dwarf) star in the Virgo Constellation. Using the Radial Velocity Method aka. metallic and rocky. Canada Goose online
buy canada goose jacket They were also able to determine that it orbits its star at a distance of 0.012 AU with an orbital period of just 14 days. At this distance, K2 229b is roughly one one hundredth as far from its star as the Earth is from the Sun and experiences surface temperature that are several times higher than those on Mercury reaching a day side temperature 2000 C (3632 F), or hot enough to melt iron and silicon. buy canada goose jacket
canada goose uk black friday As Dr. We were surprised goose outlet canada to see an exoplanet canada goose outlet canada with the same high density, showing that Mercury like planets are perhaps not as rare as we thought. Interestingly K2 229b is also the innermost planet in a system of at least 3 planets, though all three orbit much closer to their star than Mercury. More discoveries like this will help us shed light on the formation of these unusual planets, as well as Mercury itself.» canada goose uk black friday
Canada Goose Online Artist concept of a collision between two large astronomical objects, which may have been how K2 229b formed. Canada Goose Online
Given its dense, metallic nature, it is something of a mystery of how this planet formed. One theory is that the planet atmosphere could have been eroded by intense stellar wind and flares, given that the planet is so close to its star. Another possibility is that it was formed from a huge impact between two giant bodies billions of years ago similar to the theory of how the Moon formed after Earth collided with a Mars sized body (named Theia).
canada goose clearance sale As with many recent discoveries, this latest exoplanet is giving astronomers the opportunity to see just what is possible. By studying how them, we are able to learn more about how the Solar System formed and evolved. Given the similarities between K2 229b and Mercury, the study of this exoplanet could teach us much about how Mercury became a dense, metallic planet that orbits closely to our Sun. canada goose clearance sale
uk canada goose outlet Back in 2012, scientists were delighted to discover that within the polar regions of Mercury, vast amounts of water ice were detected. While the existence of water ice in this permanently shaded region had been the subject of speculation for about 20 years, it was only after the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft studied the polar region that this was confirmed. uk canada goose outlet
Based on the MESSENGER data, it was estimated that Mercury could have canada goose outlet nyc between 100 billion to 1 trillion tons of water ice at both poles, and that the ice could be up to 20 meters (65.5 ft) deep in places. However, a new study by a team of researchers from Brown University indicates that canada goose outlet store there could be three additional canada goose factory outlet large craters and many more smaller ones in the northern polar region that also contain ice. Led by Ariel Deutsch, a NASA ASTAR canada goose outlet shop Fellow and a PhD candidate at Brown University, the team considered how small scale deposits could dramatically increase the overall amount of ice on Mercury.
canada goose Artist concept of the MESSENGER spacecraft on approach to Mercury. Credit: NASA/JPL canada goose
buy canada goose jacket cheap Despite being the closest planet to the Sun, and experiencing scorching surface temperatures on its Sun facing side, Mercury low axial tilt means that its polar regions are permanently shaded and experience average temperatures of about 200 official canada goose outlet K ( 73 C; 100 F). The idea that ice might exist in these regions dates back to the 1990s, when Earth based radar telescopes detected highly reflective spots within the polar craters. buy canada goose jacket cheap
cheap Canada Goose This was confirmed when the MESSENGER spacecraft detected neutron signals from the planet north pole that were consistent with water ice. Since that time, canada goose outlet toronto factory it has been the general consensus that Mercury surface ice was confined to seven large craters. But as Ariel Deutsch explained in a Brown University press statement, she and her team sought to look beyond them: cheap Canada Goose
canada goose factory sale «The assumption has been that surface ice on Mercury exists predominantly in large craters, but we show evidence for these smaller scale deposits canada goose outlet black friday as well. Adding these small scale deposits to the large deposits within craters adds canada goose outlet significantly to the surface ice inventory on Mercury.» canada goose factory sale
Canada Goose Outlet For the sake of this new study, Deutsch was joined by Gregory A. Neumann, a research scientist from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and James W. Head. In addition canada goose jacket outlet to being a professor the Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences canada goose outlet uk at Brown, Head was also a co investigator for the MESSENGER and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions. Canada Goose Outlet
A view of the crater Prokofiev on Mercury. The crater is the canada goose outlet store uk largest one on the planet north pole area to have material, a probable sign of ice. Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/CIW
Canada Goose Parka Together, they examined data from MESSENGER Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument. This instrument was used by MESSENGER to measure the distance between the canada goose black friday sale spacecraft and Mercury, the resulting data being then used to create detailed topographical maps of the planet surface. But in this case, the MLA was used to measure surface reflectance, canada goose outlet uk sale which indicated the presence of ice. Canada Goose Parka
As an instrument specialist with the MESSENGER mission, Neumann was responsible for calibrating the altimeter reflectance signal. These signals can vary based on whether the measurements are taken from overhead or at an angle (the latter of which is refereed to as readings). Thanks to Neumann adjustments, researchers were able to detect high reflectance deposits in three more large craters that were consistent with water ice.
canadian goose jacket According to their estimates, these three craters could contain ice sheets that measure about 3,400 square kilometers (1313 mi). In addition, the team also looked at the terrain surrounding these three large craters. While these areas were not as reflective as the ice sheets inside the craters, they canada goose outlet were brighter than the Mercury average surface reflectance. canadian goose jacket
canada goose uk shop Beyond this, they also looked at altimeter data to seek out evidence of smaller scale deposits. What they found was four smaller craters, each with diameters of less than 5 canada goose outlet reviews km (3 mi), which were also more reflective than the surface. From canada goose outlet new york city this, they deduced that there were not only more large deposits of ice that were previously undiscovered, but likely many smaller traps where ice could exist as well. canada goose uk shop
canada goose black friday sale A forced perspective view of Mercury cratered north pole, showing the presence of water ice in yellow. Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/CIW canada goose black friday sale.